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Ugarit

Agarit, or Ugarit, is an ancient kingdom in Syria whose ruins have been uncovered in an archaeological hill called Ras Shamra. Also in Ras Ibn Hani, Latakia province lies 12 km north of the city of Latakia on the Mediterranean coast.

Label
It was based on a number discovered in Ebla (Kingdom of Ebla), to find out the name of the kingdom, which is Agaru, which means «field» in Akkadian.

Ugarit and History

Ugarit is an ancient archaeological city. Excavations and archaeological sites have shown that the site of Ras Shamra includes about 20 archaeological levels (settlement) dating back to the year 7500 BC. However, by the second millennium BC, the settlement on the site swelled to form what was known as Ugarit, which was known before its discovery – coincidentally in 1928 – by mentioning it in the texts of the Kingdom of Mary, where the texts mention the visit of King Zimiri Lim in 1765 BC. A letter from Ugarit to a king with capital in Aleppo, requesting him to ask the king of Mary (the Kingdom of Mary on the Euphrates River in Syria) to be allowed to visit the palace of Mary, who was Notorious at the time, and if this shows Ugarit’s keenness to establish good relations with the King of Mary, it shows The same time that he is keen that this relationship be through the knowledge of the king’s strong Yamhad in Aleppo. Ugarit is also mentioned in the Hittite texts discovered in Anatolia and Syria and the letters of Tel Amarna discovered in Egypt. The excavations show that Ugarit was the capital of a kingdom with an area of ​​approximately 5,425 square kilometers in the fifteenth and twelfth centuries BC, a period of prosperity.

The population of the city of Ugarit in the thirteenth century BC is estimated at 8000-6000 people, depending on the remnants of the ten thousand houses discovered in them, while the population of the rest of the Kingdom estimated at 50,000 to 35000 people, distributed in 150-200 villages and farms belonging to the capital. The texts show the presence of the inhabitants of Horin, Hittites and Cypriots in the capital Ugarit, as well as some of the Jubailis, Arwadis, Syrians and Egyptians.

The Austrian Egyptologist Manfred Bietak points out that the Hyksos were around 1600 BC. They had a close relationship with the Ugarites through excavations in the Auris capital of the Hyksos, and many ancient sources pointed to Ugarit, its civilization, the progress of its population, the prosperity of industry and trade with Mediterranean civilizations, and Ugarit was of great commercial importance.

Ugarit alphabet language and writing

Ugaritic characters
The Ugarit alphabet is the most complete, richest and most comprehensive alphabet of 30 characters. Because of the progress and prosperity experienced by Ugarit, their language was one of the most important ancient languages. Besides their basic language, Ugarit’s inhabitants used many languages ​​and developed multilingual dictionaries, but the main language discovered in their letters It is a Semitic language of their own called “Ugaritic”. In addition to the Ugaritic language, there were other languages ​​in the Kingdom, such as the Akkadian language used by the Kingdom’s population in their dealings with certain regions, as was the practice throughout the Middle East at the time. The Ugaritic language analysis provoked controversy among linguists as it did not belong to any of the groups of Semitic languages ​​that were known before Ugarit’s discovery. It was a new language and alphabet, and in many of its features fits languages ​​classified within the Northwest Semitic languages ​​as “Canaanite languages” but some of its features are appropriate. Other branches of the classification of these languages. In Ugarit ruins, texts in other languages ​​have been discovered, including non-Semitic languages ​​popular in this region of Syria, such as the nymph, the Hittite, and the most complete and oldest Ugarit alphabet (a stone containing the Ugarit alphabet displayed in the Damascus National Museum.)

Civilization, commerce and society

Statue of Agarete
Civilization
Ugarit occupies an advanced position on the map of ancient civilizations in the East because of the importance it enjoys and the effects of the well-planned city and buildings and the progress of science, industry and trade. The excavations in the capital Ugarit revealed many paved roads, houses and beautiful buildings for housing, administrative and government buildings, and a library. In the royal palace, which is considered one of the most luxurious palaces in the old East, with an area of ​​10,000 square meters, some parts are painted silver, and defended by a huge tower with dense walls, as excavated (in 1975) in Ras Ibn Hani, five Kilometers to the south a To the west of Ugarit, two royal palaces were discovered, in the north and south of the site, as well as a group of burials and tombs in the south, and against the background of the great biblical archive found in the northern palace and dated during the reign of King Amishtamaru II (1260-1235 BC) likely Being the seat of the second monarchy of Ugarit.

trade and Industry
Ugarit or Ugarit was an important trading center between Anatolia and behind Greece in the north, west and central Europe, and inland Syria and the east of the Fertile Crescent in the east as well as Egypt in the south and the Mediterranean coasts, it was a commercial city with distinction and has a reputation, power and commercial standing in the ancient world, and Ugarit is famous It was the center for the production and sale of wood and the manufacture of metals and pots occupied by craftsmanship and high precision and textiles, fabrics and dyes extracted from the seashell (English: Hexaplex trunculus) (purple), as well as from the agricultural side has been known for the Kingdom of Ugarit rich in agricultural products Such as – olive industry era such as olive oil, wheat, barley and some agricultural products that were exported abroad. Or through the port of Ugarit, where its port – the present-day White Mina in Lattakia – was an important trade center teeming with ships and cargo of all kinds. The Greek poet Homer was praised in Elia

Source : wikipedia

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